Referencing other material in Chicago Style
This page outlines the correct format for other material in Chicago Style footnotes and a bibliography.
In this section
- Art works
- Video and audio material
- News or magazine article
- Conference and symposium proceedings
- Thesis or dissertation
- Encyclopædia or dictionary entry
- Lecture notes, study guide, or book of readings
- Act of Parliament
New to referencing? See the introduction to referencing.
Art works (paintings, photographs, sculptures etc) are usually referred to in text or a note only.
Order: Artist, Title, date, medium, dimensions, location of work. URL.
1. Rembrandt, The Night Watch, 1642, oil on canvas, 379.5 x 453.5 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/SK-C-5.
2. Arthur James Iles. A Maori Maid, Rotorua, New Zealand. 1902. Photolithograph, 138 x 89 mm, Ephemera Collection, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington. https://tiaki.natlib.govt.nz/#details=ecatalogue.127035.
Order: Artist. Title. Date. Medium, dimensions. Location of work. URL.
Redon, Odilon, The Teeth (Les Dents). 1883. Charcoal and chalk on paper, 20 1/8 x 14 1/2" (51.1 x 36.8 cm). Museum of Modern Art, New York. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/35984?classifications=6&date_begin=Pre-1850&date_end=1935&locale=en&on_view=1&page=2&q=&with_images=1.
Video and audio material
Order (include some or all of the following as relevant):
Author/creator, "Title of work," information about the work (e.g., contributors, location of performance), information about publisher including date, medium/format, relevant supplementary information (e.g., duration), URL.
1. Beverly Biology, "Mitosis vs Meiosis," 4 May, 2014, YouTube video, 15:24, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRcjB11hDCU.
2. Nick Cave, "The World Is My Skin," interview by Jonas Hjorth, Louisiana Channel, 2013, video, 4:53, https://vimeo.com/64135061.
Order (include some or all of the following as relevant):
Author/creator. "Title." Information about the work (e.g., contributors, location of performance). Information about publisher including date. Medium/format, relevant supplementary information (e.g., duration), URL.
Busari, Stephanie. "How Fake News Does Real Harm." February 2017. TED video, 6:27. https://www.ted.com/talks/stephanie_busari_how_fake_news_does_real_harm.
Radio New Zealand. "NZ pays highest pre-tax petrol price in the OECD – Adern." Morning Report October 9, 2018. Audio file, 8:50. Retrieved from https://www.radionz.co.nz/audio/player?audio_id=2018665985.
News or magazine article
Order: Author, "Article Title," Title of Newspaper/Magazine, month, year, page(s).
1. Graham Adams, "The Madness of the Auckland Housing Market; How Crazy Is This?" North and South, April 15, 2015, 38.
2. Adams, "The Madness."
Order: Author. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper/Magazine. Month, year.
New Zealand Police. "The Safest Country: Policing 2021." New Zealand Police Four Year Plan 2017/2018-2020/2021, May 2017. http://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/2017-21-police-four-year-plan.pdf.
United Nations General Assembly. "Report on Best Practices and Lessons Learned On How Protecting and Promoting Human Rights Contribute To Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism," July 21, 2016. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/162/55/pdf/G1616255.pdf?OpenElement.
Conference and symposium proceedings
Formally published conference papers are referenced like a chapter in an edited book. When published in a journal it should be referenced like a journal article. Conference papers retrieved online should end with a URL or DOI.
Thesis or dissertation
Order: Author, "Title of thesis" (kind of thesis, academic institution, year), specific page, URL or database.
Note: A thesis is treated as not published or informally published and therefore appears in quotation marks, not italics.
1. Louise Virginia Humpage, "Closing the Gaps? The Politics of Māori Affairs Policy" (PhD diss., Massey University, 2002), 98, http://hdl.handle.net/10179/2155.
2. Humpage, "Closing the Gaps," 77.
Order: Author. "Title of thesis." Kind of thesis, academic institution, year. URL or database.
Humpage, Louise Virginia. "Closing the Gaps? The Politics of Māori Affairs Policy." PhD diss., Massey University, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10179/2155.
Encyclopædia or dictionary entry
Well-known and reliable reference works are normally cited only in the notes, not the bibliography.
Order: Encyclopaedia/Dictionary Title, edition (date), s.v. "title of entry."
Note: Treat encyclopaedia or dictionary entries like a page number, preceding the entry title with the abbreviation s.v. (meaning sub verbo, "under the word") or s.vv. for more than one entry.
1. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (1989), s.v. "neuroscience."
Lecture notes, study guide, or book of readings
Chicago Style does not prescribe a specific format for study guides, so they should be treated like books, online books, or chapters in an edited book. Generally, it is a good idea to check with your lecturer about how they would like course material referenced.
If a single author is listed, use their name.
Order: Author, Title (City of publication: publisher name, year), page or chapter number.
1. John Smith, Second Language Learning: Course Guide (Palmerston North: School of Language Studies, Massey University, 2018), 102.
Order: Author. Title. Place of publication: publisher, year.
Smith, John. Second Language Learning: Course Guide. Palmerston North: School of Language Studies, Massey University, 2018.
Sometimes, however, study guides are written by many different authors with editors, in which case they should be treated like a chapter in an edited book.
Order: Author, "Chapter Title," Course Guide Title, editor/s (City of publication, Publisher name, year), specific page.
1. Miriam McGregor, "Persuasion, Propaganda and Marketing," in Introduction to Social Psychology, ed. Ben Roberts (Palmerston North: School of Psychology, College of Social Science, Massey University, 2018), 24-25.
Order: Author. "Chapter title". Course Guide Title, editor/s, page range. City of publication: publisher name, year.
McGregor, Miriam. "Persuasion, Propaganda and Marketing." In Introduction to Social Psychology, ed. Ben Roberts, 24-38. Palmerston North: School of Psychology, College of Social Science, Massey University. 2109.
Caution: Many lecturers prefer you to go outside academic sources rather than just relying on their own wording and ideas.
Doing research demonstrates that you can explore the topic outside the boundaries of the course materials. However, if you have been directly requested in assignment instructions to reference lecture notes and study guide materials, then they should be referenced as indicated above.
Many courses at Massey University use a book of readings, which is a collection of photocopied journal articles, book chapters, and other relevant material. Because the sections are direct photocopies, the original source is referenced rather than the book of readings.
In the reference list, format the entries according to their original type.
If you're not sure what the original source was, see what type of source is this?
Act of Parliament
Title year enacted, no., sections(s), URL.
Note: Legal sources are usually referred to in text or in a note only.
1. Crimes Act of 1961, No. 43, 7A(1)(b), http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1961/0043/137.0/whole.html#DLM328025.
Order: Author, Title (City of publication: Publisher name, year), URL if accessed online.
1. Department of Corrections, Managing Offender Health, 2014, https://www.corrections.govt.nz/resources/newsletters_and_brochures/managing_offender_health_brochure.html.
2. Education Review Office, Evaluation at a Glance: A Decade of Assessment in New Zealand Primary Schools – Practice and Trends (Wellington: Education Review Office, 2018). https://www.ero.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Evaluation-at-a-glance-assessment-practice-and-trends-2020.pdf.
3. Ian Wallis, Carolyn O'Fallon and Don Wignall, Regional Transport Targets For Sustainable Transportation in New Zealand, NZ Transport Agency Research Report: 385 (Wellington: New Zealand Transport Agency, 2009), 67.
4. The Warehouse Group, 2018 Annual Report, https://www.thewarehousegroup.co.nz/investor-centre/2018-annual-report.
Order: Author. Title. City of publication: Publisher name, year. URL if accessed online.
Department of Corrections. Managing Offender Health, 2014. https://www.corrections.govt.nz/resources/newsletters_and_brochures/managing_offender_health_brochure.html">https://www.corrections.govt.nz/resources/newsletters_and_brochures/managing_offender_health_brochure.html.
Wallis, Ian, Carolyn O'Fallon and Don Wignall. Regional Transport Targets For Sustainable Transportation in New Zealand. NZ Transport Agency Research Report: 385. Wellington: New Zealand Transport Agency, 2009.
Published interviews are referenced according to their form: books, journal articles, etc.
References and further reading
Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2017. [Massey Library link] [E-book link]
Chicago Manual of Style Online. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html
These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the style guide listed above, ask your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.