Referencing other material in MLA
This page outlines the correct format for miscellaneous material in an MLA list of works cited:
- Magazine article
- Online magazine article
- Newspaper article
- Online newspaper article
- Conference and symposium proceedings
- Unpublished thesis or dissertation
- Encyclopædia or dictionary entry
- Lecture notes, study guide, or book of readings
- Video and audio material
- Photo, sculpture, or painting
Order: author(s), article title (in quotation marks), name of the magazine (italicised), date of the issue, page range, publishing medium.
Gopnik, Adam. “Freeing the Elephants: What Babar Brought” New Yorker 22 Sept. 2008: 46. Print.
- Missing an author? See no author.
Online magazine article
Order: author(s), article title (in quotation marks), name of the magazine (italicised), date of the issue, publishing medium, date of access.
Pugh, Martin. “Edward Carpenter, father of the twenty-first century.” Times Literary Supplement 28 Jan. 2009. Web. 28 June 2011.
Order: author(s), article title (in quotation marks), name of the newspaper (italicised), date of the issue, page range, publishing medium.
Watson, Lois. “Body Parts in Limbo When Amputees Can't Let Go.” Sunday Star Times 19 Oct. 2008: A8. Print.
If there is no author, the title of the article moves to the author position:
“Tobacco Firms Targeting Weight-Conscious Girls.” New Zealand Herald 22 Oct. 2008: A10. Print.
See no author for details.
Online newspaper article
Order: author(s), article title (in quotation marks), name of the newspaper (italicised), date of the issue, publishing medium, date of access.
Reid, Graham. “Review: Jeff Beck and band at the Aotea Centre.” New Zealand Herald 4 Feb. 2009. Web. 10 Feb. 2009.
Conference and symposium proceedings
Goodwin, K. L., ed. National Identity: Papers Delivered at the Commonwealth Literature Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 9th-12th August 1968. London: Heinemann Educational, 1970. Print.
Unpublished thesis or dissertation
Order: author, thesis title (italicised), university, year, publishing medium.
Beatty, Bronwyn. “The Currency of Heroic Fantasy: The Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter From Ideology to Industry.” Diss. Massey U, 2006. Print.
- For a master's thesis, replace “diss.” with “MA thesis”, “MSc thesis”, etc.
- If a thesis or dissertation has been printed and bound by the student, it is considered unpublished.
Encyclopædia or dictionary entry
If the book is a famous or familiar reference work, entries do not need the full publication information.
“Paragon.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print.
Less common reference books, however, include full publication information.
Hoeg, Jerry. “Science in Spanish American Literature.” Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature. Ed. Verity Smith. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. Print.
Encyclopædias and dictionaries can be a useful starting point for research, but academic sources are preferable. Online encyclopædia entries are covered in the section on referencing online material.
Lecture notes, study guide, or book of readings
MLA does not prescribe a specific format for study guides, so they should be treated like books. If an individual author is listed, use their name. Otherwise, put the title in the author position (see no author):
139.139 Introduction to English Studies: Study Guide One. Palmerston North, NZ: School of English and Media Studies, Massey U, 2008. Print.
Caution: lecturers prefer that you go to outside academic sources rather than just relying on their own wording and ideas. Doing so demonstrates that you can explore the topic outside the boundaries of the course material.
Many courses at Massey University use a book of readings, which is a collection of photocopied journal articles, book chapters, and other relevant material. Because the sections are direct photocopies, the original source is referenced rather than the book of readings.
In the list of works cited, format the entries according to their original type:
If you're not sure what the original source was, see what type of source is this?
In the in-text citation, cite the original source's author. Use the page number of the original source, not the page number of the book of readings.
Order: advertised product or company, “advertisement”, other publication information, publishing medium.
New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. Advertisement. New Zealand Listener 19 July 2008: 43. Print.
- For a television advertisement, replace “Print” with “Television”.
Video and audio material
Films and television programmes usually begin with the title, but if you want to emphasise the contributions of one person (e.g. the director) their name can appear before the title.
Films (motion pictures) order: title (italicised), director, distributor, year of release, medium.
Black Sheep. Dir. Jonathan King. New Zealand Film Commission, 2007. Film.
Television programme order: episode title (in quotation marks; optional), programme title (italicised), network, broadcast date, medium.
“Mr. Plow.” The Simpsons. Fox. 19 Nov. 1992. Television.
Audio recordings order: artist, song (in quotation marks; optional), title of the recording (italicised), manufacturer, year, medium.
Stevens, Sufjan. “Chicago.” Illinois. Asthmatic Kitty, 2005. CD.
Published music score order: composer, title of the work (italicised), year of composition, place of publication, name of the publisher, date of publication, publishing medium.
Mahler, Gustav. Symphony No. 5 in C# Minor. 1904. London: Ernst Eulenburg, n.d. Print.
Photo, sculpture, or painting
Order: artist, title of the work, medium, institution housing the work, city of the institution.
Brueghel, Pieter. The Tower of Babel. Oil on canvas. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Canova, Antonio. Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss. Marble. Louvre, Paris.
A photograph (or a photograph of a work of art) taken from another source should also contain publication information about the source:
Peryer, Peter. Dead Steer. Photograph. Chartwell Collection, Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tamaki. Into the Light: A History of New Zealand Photography. By David Eggleton. Nelson: Craig Potton, 2006. 130. Print.
Published interviews are referenced like books, but the interviewee's name is put first, followed by the interview title. and the name of the interviewer. If the interview does not have a title, use “Interview” (not italicised) in its place.
Hu, Yaobang. An Interview with Hu Yaobang. By Lu Keng. New York: Sino Daily Express, 1985. 1-57. Print.
Interviews you have conducted yourself are referenced using the interviewee's name, the method of interviewing (personal interview, telephone interview, e-mail interview), and the date.
Maharey, Steven. Personal interview. 22 Aug. 2008.
See also referencing e-mails.
References and further reading
Modern Language Association of America. (2009). MLA handbook for writers of research papers (7th ed.). New York, NY: Author. [Massey Library link]
These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the style guide listed above, ask your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.