Chicago (notes-bibliography) referencing elements
This page describes what to do when there are multiple or missing parts (elements) of a Chicago bibliography or footnote citation
In this section
- Reference within a source (secondary source)
- 2+ authors
- No author / group author
- Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- No year of publication
- City of publication
- 2+ cities of publication
- No city of publication
- No page numbers
- No month, season, volume, or issue number
The general format of footnote citations and bibliography entries are covered on those pages.
New to referencing? See the introduction to referencing.
Reference within a source (secondary source)
Many academic books and journal articles quote earlier books or articles on the same topic. If you cannot access the original source (it is out of print, or unavailable through the library), you can cite the secondary source instead. In a footnote citation, use "quoted in…" to denote a secondary source. The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) recommends mentioning the original author in the text, and giving details of both the original source and the secondary source (where you found the original author) in the footnote citation and bibliography. Only the secondary source, however, is given in the bibliography:
In 1978, Steele1 suggested n-1 is used instead of n...
1Tilda Steele, New Frontiers in Statistics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), 67, quoted in Mike Chang, Fundamentals of Quantitative Analysis (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017), 34.
Chang, Mike. Fundamentals of Quantitative Analysis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.
When there are 2 or 3 authors, 'and' is used before the final author's name. The page number follows a comma after a shortened form of the source title:
According to Samson, James, and Daft1…
1 Samson, James, and Daft, An Introduction to Financial Accounting (Wellington: Rata Press, 2005), 56.
… from the influence of pressure groups"2
2Samson, James, and Daft, Financial Accounting, 34.
In the bibliography, invert the order of the first author (family name, first name) followed by the other authors in normal order (i.e. first name, family name). The last author is separated from the preceding author with a comma and an 'and':
Samson, John, Scott James, and Willa Daft. An Introduction to Financial Accounting. Wellington: Rata Press, 2005.
For four to ten authors, give the first author's name and replace the other names with 'et al.' (an abbreviation of the Latin et alia, meaning "and others") in a footnote citation. In the bibliography list, give all the authors:
According to Chen et al.1 the…..
1Chen et al., Economic Fundamentals, (Auckland: Huia Press, 2010), 23.
2Chen et al., Economic Fundamentals, 23.
Chen, Candie S., Scott Cooke, Sam Bergsma, Jennifer Burnes, Jason Maclean, and Trish Japudi. Economic Fundamentals. Auckland: Huia Press, 2010.
A single author entry in the bibliography precedes a multi-author entry beginning with the same name in the bibliography.
For works with more than 10 authors, only the first seven should be listed in the bibliography, followed by 'et al.'
If no author is named, the source may be written by a group or organisation. This is often true for collaborative or official works from government departments, corporations, or other organisations.
In this case, use the group in the author position, both in the footnote citation and in the bibliography:
1Ministry of Education, Te Whāriki: Early Childhood Curriculum (Wellington: Learning Media, 1996), 56.
2Ministry of Education, Te Whāriki, 56.
Ministry of Education. Te Whāriki: Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media, 1996.
If there is no group author, the title should be moved to the author position. This method is often used for newspaper / magazine articles and encyclopædia entries with no identified author.
Up to four words of the title are used in the footnote citation:
1"Beehive Updating Job Wins Award" (Dominion Post, October 29, 2007), A5.
2"Beehive Updating Job", A5.
The full title is used in the bibliography:
"Beehive Updating Job Wins Award". Dominion Post, October 29, 2007.
Where an author is explicitly attributed to 'Anonymous', then this is cited:
5Anonymous, "Government Backroom Shenanigans." Confessions of a Policy Maker (blog), February 15 2015, https://confessionsofapolicymaker.com
5Anonymous, "Government Backroom."
Anonymous. "Government Backroom Shenanigans." Confessions of a Policy Maker (blog), February 15, 2015. https://confessionsofapolicymaker.com
EndNote fields: If you are using Endnote, insert a comma at the end of group/corporate authors in the Endnote library to ensure it is displayed correctly.
For information on and help with Endnote see:
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
The Digital Object Identifier is a unique number allocated to an online publication. It is often used to identify online journal articles and other online documents.
If an online document has a DOI, use it instead of the URL address:
Gelkopf, Mark, Paul Ryan, Sarah Cotton and Rudi Berger. The Impact of "Training the Trainers" for Helping Tsunami-Survivor Children on Sri Lankan Disaster Volunteer Workers. International Journal of Stress Management 15, no. 2 (January 2008):117–135. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.15.2.117
The DOI will usually appear as part of the source's copyright information or online citation. You can also look up a DOI at http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/
No year of publication
Years of publication can be found in many places.
- For books and other print publications, use the copyright date if possible.
- Massey Library's catalogue lists a year of publication for each book in its collection.
- Web pages sometimes display a "last updated" date; the year can be used for the year of publication.
If no year is available, use 'n.d.' (meaning "no date") in the bibliography entry:
New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 100 Maori Words Every New Zealander Should Know. Wellington: Huia Press, n.d.
City of publication
If the city of publication may not be known to the reader, or may be confused with another city of the same name, then the state or province code (if in the US) or country should be added. When the publisher's name includes the city, then the state code is not needed:
Palmerston North: Massey University Press.
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
You can find the American two-letter state abbreviations at https://www.bls.gov/respondents/mwr/electronic-data-interchange/appendix-d-usps-state-abbreviations-and-fips-codes.htm
2+ cities of publication
If more than one city of publication is listed, use the first one mentioned. Alternatively, if the source identifies a home office, use that city.
No city of publication
Cities of publication are usually found on the copyright page of a book (one of the first pages inside the front cover). Massey Library's catalogue lists cities of publication for each book in its collection.
When the place of publication is not known, the abbreviation 'N.p' (to denote no place), may be used before the publisher's name. If the place can be reasonably guessed, it may be given with a question mark in square brackets:
N.p: Windsor Press.
[Lake Bluff, IL?]: Vliet and Edwards.
The publisher's name does not include legal or superfluous terms such as 'Inc.', '& Co.', 'Pty.', and 'Publishers'. You should, however, keep 'Press' and 'Books'.
No page numbers
Some sources, particularly web pages, do not have page numbers indicated. Most of the time, it is enough just to cite the author and the year of publication.
If you have to cite a particular part of an unpaginated source (for example, when quoting), there are a number ways to denote location. Section headings can be used, as can 'chap.' to denote chapter, 'sec.' to denote section, or 'para' or '¶' to denote which paragraph is being cited. These locating abbreviations are only used for footnote citations and are not included in the bibliography:
1Benson, Tales of Woe, under "The Circus".
2Benson, Tales of Woe, chap. 5.
3Benson, Tales of Woe, sec. 4.
4Benson, Tales of Woe, ¶ 2.15.
5Benson, Tales of Woe, para. 2.15.
No month or season, volume, or issue number
Journals are formatted according to whether a volume, season (or month), or issue number is included in the citation. The volume number follows the title without any punctuation. The issue number, denoted by 'no', follows a comma after the volume number. The year, sometimes preceded by a season or month or exact date, is put in brackets after the issue number without intervening punctuation. The page range of the article usually follows the year and is preceded by a colon.
When only the year is available, put the year in brackets following the journal title without intervening punctuation. Give the page range preceded by a colon. If there is season, month, or exact date, this is included in the brackets along with the year:
Gelkopf, Mark, Paul Ryan, Sarah Cotton and Rudi Berger. The Impact of "Training the Trainers" for Helping Tsunami-Survivor Children on Sri Lankan Disaster Volunteer Workers. International Journal of Stress Management (2008):117–135.
Gelkopf, Mark, Paul Ryan, Sarah Cotton and Rudi Berger. The Impact of "Training the Trainers" for Helping Tsunami-Survivor Children on Sri Lankan Disaster Volunteer Workers. International Journal of Stress Management (Winter, 2008):117–135.
When no volume number is given, the issue number follows a comma after the title:
Gelkopf, Mark, Paul Ryan, Sarah Cotton and Rudi Berger. The Impact of "Training the Trainers" for Helping Tsunami-Survivor Children on Sri Lankan Disaster Volunteer Workers. International Journal of Stress Management, no. 15 (2008):117–135.
When no issue number is given, the volume number follows the title without intervening punctuation, followed by the year in brackets:
Gelkopf, Mark, Paul Ryan, Sarah Cotton and Rudi Berger. The Impact of "Training the Trainers" for Helping Tsunami-Survivor Children on Sri Lankan Disaster Volunteer Workers. International Journal of Stress Management 12 (Winter, 2008):117–135.
References and further reading
Chicago Manual of Style Online. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html
These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the style guide listed above, ask your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.