In this section
About Chicago Style
The Chicago manual of style sets out two referencing systems: footnotes and a bibliography, and an author-date system similar to APA.
The footnoting and bibliography style is summarised in brief below. For further information on Chicago footnoting, or Chicago's author-date style, consult the Chicago manual of style 17th edition or The Chicago manual of style online website: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
In the footnote-bibliography system, authors are identified by a number in the text, and further details indexed by number at the bottom of the page in the form of footnotes, or at the end of the text in the form of endnotes.
The first time a source is used the note contains all pertinent information about the source (title, publishers, etc.). If the same source is used again, a shortened version is given.
The shortened version (footnote 2 in the example below) contains only the author's surname, the title (which can be shortened if it is longer than four words) and the page number.
The full version (footnote 1 in the example below) contains more detailed information, depending on the type of source.
All sources mentioned in notes must also be included in the bibliography at the end of the document. The format of each entry is similar to the full version of the note, with a few minor changes:
- The first author's surname is put before their first name (so "Mason Durie" becomes "Durie, Mason")
- Commas between the author, chapter/article title, and book title are replaced with full stops
- Brackets are removed from around publication information. They are kept for the year of publication of a journal article, however
- Page numbers for books are removed, or (in the case of journal articles) replaced with the full page range
The entries each have a hanging indent, and are alphabetised according to the surname of the first author.
Order: Author, Book Title, edition. (City of publication: publisher name, year), page number
Cottrell1 emphasises the use of outside source materials in academic writing. When writing an assignment, this will form the crucial second step.2
[at the bottom of the page]
1. Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook, 3rd ed. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 181.
2. Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook, 176.
Order: Author. Book Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher, year.
Cottrell, Stella. The Study Skills Handbook, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Chapter in an edited book
Order: Author, "Chapter Title", Book Title, editors, City of publication, Publisher name, year, specific page.
1. Ash Amin, "The Economic Base of Contemporary Cities," in A Companion to the City, ed. Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), 120.
2. Amin, "The Economic Base", 122.
Order: Author. "Chapter title". Book title, editors, page range. City of publication: publisher name, year, specific page
Ash, Amin. "The Economic Base of Contemporary Cities." In A Companion to the City, edited by Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, 115-128. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.
Order: Author, "Article Title", Journal Title volume number, issue number, (year): specific page number, DOI (if available)
1. Francis G. Castles, Jennifer Curtin, and Jack Vowles, "Public Policy in Australia and New Zealand: The New Global Context," Australian Journal of Political Science 41, no. 2 (2006): 135, https://doi.org/10.1080/10361140600672394.
2. Castles, Curtin, and Vowles, "Public Policy", 135-136.
Order: Author. "Article Title". Journal Title volume number, issue number, (year): article page range. DOI (if available)
Castles, Francis G., Jennifer Curtin, and Jack Vowles. "Public Policy in Australia and New Zealand: The New Global Context." Australian Journal of Political Science 41, no. 2 (2006): 131-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/10361140600672394
Order: Author, "Title of Webpage", website name, publication, last revised/modified, or access date, URL.
Note: when there is no publication, revision or last modified date, give an access date.
1. A. Benson, R. Kipp, J. Larson, and A. Fusaro, "Potamopyrgus Antipodarum," United States Geological Survey, last revised February 2, 2018, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?SpeciesID=1008.
Order: Author. "Title of webpage". Website name. Publication, last revised/modified, or access date. URL.
Benson, A., R. Kipp, J. Larson, and A. Fusaro. "Potamopyrgus Antipodarum." United States Geological Survey. Last revised February 2, 2018. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?SpeciesID=1008.
- Quoting and paraphrasing
- Referencing styles
- Why reference?
- Referencing software
- Academic writing
References and further reading
Chicago manual of style online. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html
These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the style guide listed above, ask your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.