The Chicago manual of style sets out two referencing systems: footnotes and a bibliography, and an author-date system similar to APA.
The footnoting style is summarised in brief below. For further information on Chicago footnoting, or Chicago's author-date style, consult the Chicago manual of style.
In this system, authors are identified by a number in the text, and further details indexed by number at the bottom of the page in the form of footnotes, or at the end of the text in the form of endnotes.
The first time a source is used the note contains all pertinent information about the source (title, publishers, etc.). If the same source is used again, a shortened version is given.
Cottrell1 emphasises the use of outside source materials in academic writing. When writing an assignment, this will form the crucial second step.2
[at the bottom of the page]
1. Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook, 3rd ed. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 181.
2. Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook, 176.
The shortened version (footnote 2 in the example) contains only the author's surname, the title (which can be shortened if it is longer than four words) and the page number.
The full version (footnote 1 in the example) contains more detailed information, depending on the type of source.
Order: author, book title, city of publication, publisher name, year, page number (optional).
1. Mason Durie, Ngā kāhui pou: Launching Māori Futures (Wellington: Huia Publishers, 2003), 22.
Chapter in an edited book
Order: author, chapter title, book title, editors, page range, city of publication, publisher name, year, page number (optional).
2. Ash Amin, “The Economic Base of Contemporary Cities,” in A Companion to the City, ed. Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, 115-129 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), 120.
Order: author, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number, year, page number (or page range, in bibliography).
3. Francis G. Castles, Jennifer Curtin, and Jack Vowles, “Public Policy in Australia and New Zealand: The New Global Context,” Australian Journal of Political Science 41, no. 2 (2006): 135.
Order: author, page title, site owner, URL.
4. A. Benson, “Potamopyrgus antipodarum,” United States Geological Survey, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?SpeciesID=1008.
All sources mentioned in notes must also be included in the bibliography at the end of the document. The format of each entry is similar to the full version of the note, with a few minor changes:
- The first author's surname is put before their first name (so “Mason Durie” becomes “Durie, Mason”)
- Commas between the author, chapter/article title, and book title are replaced with full stops
- Brackets are removed from around publication information. They are kept for the year of publication of a journal article, however
- Page numbers for books are removed, or (in the case of journal articles) replaced with the full page range
The entries each have a hanging indent, and are alphabetised according to the surname of the first author.
The examples above would appear in the bibliography as follows:
Amin, Ash. “The Economic Base of Contemporary Cities.” In A Companion to the City, ed. Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, 115-129. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.
Benson, A. “Potamopyrgus antipodarum.” United States Geological Survey. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?SpeciesID=1008.
Castles, Francis G., Jennifer Curtin, and Jack Vowles. “Public Policy in Australia and New Zealand: The New Global Context.” Australian Journal of Political Science 41, no. 2 (2006), 131-143.
Durie, Mason. Ngā kāhui pou: Launching Māori Futures. Wellington: Huia Publishers, 2003.
References and further reading
These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the style guide listed above, ask your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.